defensive

英[dɪˈfensɪv ] 美[dɪˈfensɪv ]

丁香医学词典

 

防御性的,防御的

简明英汉

 

adj. 防御用的,自卫的

n. 防御

论文例句

 
  • 1.The physiology of response to a perceived threat is an attractive topic of investigation because an appropriate response to environmental threat is necessary for long-term survival and because perceived threat produces a variety of reasonably well-mapped, physically instantiated responses(20). If the threat is abrupt, a defensive cascade of linked, rapid extensor-flexor movement occurs throughout the body within 30 to 50 ms (21),presumably to reduce vital-organ vulnerability (e.g., eye blink and retraction of the head). Less immediately, perceived threat causes signals from the sensory cortex to be relayed to the thalamus and ultimately to the brain stem, resulting in heightened noradrenergic activity in the locus ceruleus (22). Acetylcholine, acting primarily through the amygdala but also through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (23), stimulates release of epinephrine, which in turn leads to activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Though these

    对感知到的威胁发生反应的生理机制是非常吸引人的研究课题,因为对环境威胁做出适当的反应是机体长期生存所必须的,当机体感知到威胁时,会催生一系列具有良好协调性的,身体上的实际反应。如果威胁是突如其来的,整个机体会在30-50毫秒之内产生非常迅速的伸肌—缩肌运动,它们构成了机体相互级联的系列防御机制,大概是为了保护脆弱的重要器官(例如,眼睛的瞬目和头部的回缩)。紧接着,感知到的威胁信号会从感觉皮层传递到丘脑,最终会到达脑干,导致蓝斑区去甲肾上腺素能神经元被激活。该神经元分泌的乙酰胆碱主要作用于杏仁核,但也作用于下丘脑—垂体—肾上腺皮质轴,刺激其分泌肾上腺素,而肾上腺素则可以激活自主神经系统的交感神经。虽然这些基本的响应方式存在于所有人中,但是个体对于感知威胁的敏感性依旧具有极大的差异。

    来自 论坛

  • 2.Dr. Woodward also credits DA&O with saving money by reducing the volume of unnecessary tests and treatments that characterize defensive medicine. "If you eliminate the fear of spending 5.5 years in court, which is the average in a malpractice case in Massachusetts, you'll reduce the incentive to practice medicine," he said.

    Woodward医生也将成本降低归功于DA&O项目,通过这项活动,减少了有防御性医疗特点但并非必要的测试和治疗。他说:“在马萨诸塞州打一场医疗事故官司平均需要五年半的时间,即使你不怕这个,你也不可能继续保持对医疗实践一腔热血。”

    来自 论坛

  • 3.Doctors who have been sued may end up practicing defensive medicine, ordering unnecessary tests and medications or refusing to treat patients with more complex illnesses altogether as a safeguard against future litigation. Those same doctors can also become burned out, which can lead to even more errors, and more malpractice claims.

    已被起诉的医生,最终可能会实行防御性医疗,安排不必要的检查和药物治疗或拒绝治疗患复杂疾病的患者以防将来被起诉。有相同处境的医生会感到力不从心,从而导致更多的差错和医疗官司。

    来自 论坛

  • 4.The beneficial effect of vitamin E in reducing CaOx accumulation is due to attenuation of tubular cell death and enhancement of the defensive roles of OPN and THP.

    维生素E 减少草酸钙累积的作用归因于肾小管细胞死亡的消减和OPN ,THP 防御作用的增强.

    来自 论坛

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