英[dɪˈfensɪv ] 美[dɪˈfensɪv ]






adj. 防御用的,自卫的

n. 防御


  • 1.The physiology of response to a perceived threat is an attractive topic of investigation because an appropriate response to environmental threat is necessary for long-term survival and because perceived threat produces a variety of reasonably well-mapped, physically instantiated responses(20). If the threat is abrupt, a defensive cascade of linked, rapid extensor-flexor movement occurs throughout the body within 30 to 50 ms (21),presumably to reduce vital-organ vulnerability (e.g., eye blink and retraction of the head). Less immediately, perceived threat causes signals from the sensory cortex to be relayed to the thalamus and ultimately to the brain stem, resulting in heightened noradrenergic activity in the locus ceruleus (22). Acetylcholine, acting primarily through the amygdala but also through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (23), stimulates release of epinephrine, which in turn leads to activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Though these


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  • 2.Dr. Woodward also credits DA&O with saving money by reducing the volume of unnecessary tests and treatments that characterize defensive medicine. "If you eliminate the fear of spending 5.5 years in court, which is the average in a malpractice case in Massachusetts, you'll reduce the incentive to practice medicine," he said.


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  • 3.Doctors who have been sued may end up practicing defensive medicine, ordering unnecessary tests and medications or refusing to treat patients with more complex illnesses altogether as a safeguard against future litigation. Those same doctors can also become burned out, which can lead to even more errors, and more malpractice claims.


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  • 4.The beneficial effect of vitamin E in reducing CaOx accumulation is due to attenuation of tubular cell death and enhancement of the defensive roles of OPN and THP.

    维生素E 减少草酸钙累积的作用归因于肾小管细胞死亡的消减和OPN ,THP 防御作用的增强.

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