• 1.Specialised MRI brain scans showed changesin the white matter of the brain - the part that contains nerve fibres - inthose classed as being web addicts, compared with non-addicts.


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  • 2.The unborn baby's congenital heart block developed when her mother's immune system mistakenly attacked the nerves fibres that transmit heartbeat signals in the fetal heart muscle.


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  • 3.Dr Tsien and his team believe their targeted dye has huge potential. They have already put it to use in magnetic-resonance imaging by combining it with gadolinium, a metal employed as a contrast agent in this sort of body scanning. Used this way, the dye does more than just provide guidance to the surgeon during the procedure—it highlights tumours both pre- and post-operatively. It can also show whether tumour cells have crept onto nerve fibres, something that is now left to a biopsy or a surgeon's best guess. And Dr Tsien has even modified the dye to respond to other molecules, such as a blood-clotting factor called thrombin. The result lights up those arterial plaques most at risk of becoming dislodged and causing a heart attack or stroke. A spotlight on disease, as it were.


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  • 4.Corneal Collagen Cross-linking with Riboflavin (C3-R) is a treatment that combines the use of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and UVA irradiation to induce corneal stroma strengthening through the creation of new bridges amongst collagen fibres.


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  • 5.At the university there, coin-sized disks are being produced from the cocoon of the tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta). According to Chinmoy Patra, an Indian scientist who now works in Engel's laboratory, the fibre produced by the tasar silkworm displays several advantages over the other substances tested. “The surface has protein structures that facilitate the adhesion of heart muscle cells. It's also coarser than other silk fibres.” This is the reason why the muscle cells grow well on it and can form a three-dimensional tissue structure. “The communication between the cells was intact and they beat synchronously over a period of 20 days, just like real heart muscle,” says Engel.

    在Kharagpur的大学,tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta)的茧被制成硬币大小的丝团。在Engel’s laboratory工作的印度籍科学家Chinmoy Patra说,tasar silkworm 产生的纤维有许多优点。因为它特有的蛋白结构有利于心肌细胞粘附,而且更具有抗变形性。因此,心肌细胞才能粘附其上并且形成三维空间结构。Engel说“心肌细胞与细胞的信号传导良好,细胞能同时兴奋收缩20天以上,简直就像一个真的心脏”

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